60 Tiger Cub Motorcycle

FRS 106, Michael Littman – Spring 2019

Week 10: Thursday Scribe Notes

Recap of Last Week’s Lab

  • Detailing: Primed the oil and gas tank, they are painting today.
  • Frame: Got the seat done!
  • Wheels: Finished one of the wheels with Bill Becker.
  • Top-End: Finished assembling the carburetor, fixed the exhaust pipe, and put the blue bike back together.
  • Bottom End: Didn’t put in the sprocket, therefore had to unseal the case again and put it in.
  • Electrical: Drilled hole in the case cover then re-attached it back on to the bike and tested it.


  • What happens to the rear wheel when you just accelerate? What happens to the tension in the chain? The tension goes up on the top.
  • Spring arm allows the whole wheel to bounce up and down.
  • Braking locks the hub and causes the whole assembly to twist.
    • If not designed well, it will snap. In a previous year, it snapped (due to large stress). Glen drew the part and 3D printed it. Then, manufactured it out of high steel aluminum.
  • Another year found that the last gear on the lay shift is missing a tooth. Believe it case hardened.
  • Involute curve:
    • It has the property, when the gears are matching, one tooth rolls on the other. By having the right shape, you have a low mechanical loss. Sliding causes friction loss.
  • Friction
    • Clutch plates
    • Coefficient of friction
      • F = (Mu) * N
        • F = force of static friction.
        • Mu = coefficient of static friction.
        • N = normal force.
    • To calculate theta, the coefficient of friction.
      • Mu = tan(theta)
  • Friction is important in the motorcycle, without friction motorcycle would not go.

Week 10: Tuesday Scribe Notes

Bill Becker:

  • Architect. Currently, in retirement, restoring motorcycles.
  • He read a book about how kids draw wheels. It was just lines. It looked stupid, yet that is how wheels were previously made/looked.
  • Mass – how the matter in things reacts to forces. Particularly, the mass in other objects.
  • Inertia – how the mass reacts to moving (stopping and going).
    • Scooter/bike have less mass in the wheel.
    • Motorcycles are performance-based vehicles. Many times, they are for sports too. You want them to be as light as possible, strong, and overcome inertia quite easily.
  • The forces that act on a wheel:
    • Gravity (weight), velocity (magnitude of speed), orientation (the direction you’re going towards)
      • Vectors (a simple way of saying the direction of force):
        • Helps you analyze how the force is moving in that system.
  • Materials:
    • Most motorcycles have aluminum hubs or rims.
    • Cast iron in hubs.
    • Mild steel you can see in stamping, and the rim is stamped out of mild steel.
    • Hardened steel in ball bearings.
    • Stainless steel in spokes.
    • Rubber in a tire.
    • Polyester in a tube.
    • Brass in the nipple of air in the tube.
    • Chromium in paint so it does not rust.
    • Asbestos in brakes (not today).
    • Plastic in the retainer of bearing.
    • Air
  • Pick materials based on what you want the material to do, but it has to be designed to withstand whatever loads they are subjected towards.
    • Dead load: simply the weight of the object itself. Being subjected to the forces of gravity.
    • Live load: the driver, passenger, luggage, etc.
    • Static load: the weight not in motion, just sitting there.
    • Dynamic load: loads in motion. Example: Hammer’s head.
  • The geometry of the wheel:
    • Compressive force: mass causes something to be squeezed.
    • Tension: opposite of compressive.
    • Bending: only compression and tension.
    • Sheer: separating the atomic structure within the material causing it to rip.
    • Autonomic structure of the material is holding the neutrality. There is a neutral axis down the middle.
  • Young Modulus was a physician. He wanted to know why materials behaved the way they do. He discovered a relationship between force you put on a material (stress load) and how it reacts. Strain is the reaction to stress. When you put the material under stress it will react in strain through deformation. It gets to the point where it approaches its yield point, goes through a deformation, then fails. Example: rubber band.
  • The rotor forces action on a wheel.
    • Forces are being applied to the hub (in tension) and are being transmitted to the wheel, then to the rim (in compression) through the spokes. Spokes can’t transmit a force, because it is a triangle, it is able to pull the rim around. Therefore, we talk about the forces flowing through the spokes. Spokes are in tension. The more load you put on it the straighter it gets. Effective by the virtue of it its number. Contribute to the strength of the wheel. (Now, they are casting.)
  • Dynamic loads from turning.
    • When you start to load sideways. What do you think is happening? Who is doing the work?
      • Compression on one-side and tension on the other.
  • Work the spoke is capable of doing.
    • 8-inch diameter for 6900 psi – holds up about 860 pounds by itself.

Week 9: Thursday Scribe Notes

Recap of Last Week’s Lab

  • Detailing: Flushed out the oil tank with motor cleaner in the hood. They sanded down the gasket.
  • Frame: Worked with Computer-Aided Design, CAD, to work on a piece that connects the seat to the board.
  • Wheels: Discovered paint inside one of the wheels (apparently, it is insignificant). They went through the catalog and found the ring they needed (a backup ring for keeping the grease in), and they plan on pressing in the bearings today.
  • Top-End: Attached the cover to the motorcycle. Plan on looking for carburetor parts, work on the fuel line and, possibly, put in some gasoline.
  • Bottom End: Worked a bit on sealing, they cleaned out the oil pump area. They pressed the bearing in too much, but they fixed it (by tapping it farther out).
  • Electrical: Worked on the Red Motorcycle. They re-cabled the clutch cable after shorting it twice. Today, they are working on the cover.

Reading Discussion

  • Discussion Leader: Agnes
    • The “winners” (like the Olympic champion) is the one with intrinsic motivation. Page 180.
    • There is a disconnect between work life and leisure life. Page 181.
      • The bike shop can be a place where you find the two merges into one. Page 182.
    • Face-to-Face interactions offer a community when the political/brand image is no longer there. I.E. “German-Made.” Page 189.
    • Any job that can be scaled up, depersonalized, and made to answer to outside forces can be degraded. Page 198.
    • Failure is important. Page 203.
      • People in charge should know what it is like to fail.

Feedback regarding the readings.

  • Pirsig’s book is hard to read.
  • Shop Class as Soulcraft seemed more relevant.
    • Read it first.
  • The text would be more difficult to engage with if it were to be just motorcycle references.
  • Books complement each other.

Brake dynamometers

  • Last class, we measured torque vs. speed.
  • The drum has a moment of inertia.
    • F = m * (v-dot)
    • Put torque in a wheel, drum speeds up.
    • J = moment of inertia.
  • To figure out the force on the object:
    • M*G = force of gravity
    • If you let it go, it accelerates.
    • Velocity increases linearly in time.
    • The derivative of V(t) is acceleration.
    • Can graph torque as a function of angular speed

Week 9: Tuesday Scribe Notes

A quick look into the history of Princeton (sparked by the discussion of some Orange Key members):

  • Joseph Henry’s House.
  • The Henry Motor.

Recap of Last Week’s Lab:

  • Detailing: Reattached the seat on the blue bike. Used S.A.E.
  • Frame: Started to assemble the frame and used Computer-Aided Design (CAD) to design a washer.
  • Wheels: Spent last class adjusting the offset of both wheels.
  • Top-End: Built the head. Professor Littman and Jon got the rockers in, during their own time.
  • Bottom End: Cleaned up the rest of the parts. Today, they plan on spending some time on the blue bike, checking oil levels, and ensuring the carburetor is attached.
  • Electrical: Cut the clutch cable again (because the first cut was too long). They drained the oil. They took the cover off to drill a hole, so to make tightening the threads easier. They plan on drilling the hole today.

Reading Discussion:

  • Discussion Leader: Charles
    • With Emotional Intelligence, the whole person is at issue, rather than a narrow set of skills. Page 129.
    • The author worked at IAC, where he wrote journal abstracts. He believed the lack of an external, objective standard resulted in him despising his job. Page 135.
    • Credential Inflation and pushing everyone into college will require a janitor to hold a PhD. Page 143.
    • Difference between Crew vs. Corporate Culture:
      • With a crew, you have proof of your own worth independent of others.
      • Air Traffic Controllers who do not have formal education perform better than their college-educated counterparts.
    • Tacit knowledge comes from recognizing patterns. Page 166.
    • Technical writers need to be mechanics. Page 179.

Motor demonstration:

  • There is rope wrapped around a pulley (turning counterclockwise). When the rope is loose, there is no load. The load cell measures the tension in the rope.
  • When you take the difference in tension between the upper rope and lower rope and multiply by the radius, you get the brake.
  • Graphed two things:
    • torque vs. speed
    • power curve (peaked at half of no-load speed).

Week 8: Thursday

Lab Recap:

Bottom End: Started trying to find all the pieces for the new engine based on the 1964 Mountain Cub. A lot harder than expected because they didn’t have the right handbook.   Keeping record of stuff that they do and don’t have.

Detailing: Put the oil tank back on the bike.

Electrical: Figured out where to snake the clutch cable. Trying to cut the cable. Difficult because we have to cut down on the actual cable, but also the distance between the wire and the cable jacket

Top End: Sandblasted the head. Last class grounded the valves, and this class couldn’t find them.

Frame: Light sanding and another coat on the fork tubes. Brought the swing arm down to Glen, and it turns out it’s missing a washer.

Wheels: Process figuring out how to lace up the wheels. When a wheel turns, it should turn straight up and down and not wobble left to right.

Chapters 2 and 3

Summary: Simplification of blue-collar work led to less agency, and degradation of intellectual aspect. New idea in early 20th century, brought about by Ford assembly line. Using a cost-efficient low skilled laborer and automated process turned craftsmen to blue-collar workers. He also raised worker wages to reduce worker turnovers. He had prizes for workers who identified ways to cut costs. White-collar work just became the intellectual version of blue-collar work. Rise of the creative class – employed to think of ideas and not do much else. To be creative, you first need to have an understanding of the form and function of something. Need to have a discipline that underlies it.

Motorcycle References: Evolution of oil on your motorcycles. Repeats issue of engines with no more dipsticks.

Modern Manufacturing:

FDM (fused deposition manufacturing) and CNC mill, die cutter


water-jet (water has pieces of garnet)

EDM (electric discharge machine)

plasma cutter

All of these things are now driven by computers (print function)

Week 8: Tuesday

Lab Recap

Bottom End: Put engine back into the frame. There were scratches on the surface, which is a problem with the sealing. It is a problem because of air leaking out or gas leaking in. It was sent down to the shop.

Detailing: Gas tank and headlight back on the frame of motorcycle. Still need to put in the carburetor.

Top End: Cut the valves. The angles were cut at 30, 45, and 120 degrees. Glen put a drill on the shaft and spun it, instead of using the suction cut device. Used a three angle cut. When the valve sits in the seat, it hits the middle of the seat. Used bluing compound to find the surfaces the valve touches the valve seat. Seats were hardened, cast iron. Seats and valve have to be gas tight.

Frame: Painted more coat on the fork tubes. Will start working on the swing arm.

Electrical: Redoing the clutch cable on the red bike and modeling it after the green bike. The clutch cable was too long and so wasn’t kickstarting efficiently. When routing the cable, want to avoid sharp kinks because this leads to non-smooth draw and release.

Wheels: Working on lacing up the wheels and found out the phalanges were matched with the wrong hub. Looked in the past at the rim to figure out the large phalange and the small phalange. Possible that the previous decision as wrong. Spokes were going all the way through the nipple, and professor was concerned that that would cause a problem on the nipple/nut. The shaft diameter was not 0.134, nut smaller: 0.120. John thinks these are rolled threads.

Book Discussion

Introduction and Chapter 1

Discussion Leader: Simon

Intro Brief Summary: Hiding the works of machines that we use, decline in using tools makes us have a more passive relationship to material things. Will argue that working and fixing things with your hands is meaningful because it gives us agency. Not just the romantic aspect, but the utilitarian aspect. Agency is doing it for yourself, and confidence is knowing what you’re doing.

Intro Tech References: Some cars are designed to not have a dipstick, which reflects a lack of interest in working mechanically on your own car.

Ch1 Summary of Part 1: “Psychic satisfaction” Talks about experience as electrician starting young. Learned the value of doing things well, even if no one is going to see it.

Ch1 Summary of Part 2: In a period of time of the assembly line, the concept of manual labor started to shift to take independence and thinking out of it in exchange for efficiency. More effort back then to include vocational training in school. Makes distinction between craft and trade. Some type of manual jobs (plumber, carpenter) are more secure because it’s not efficient to have machines do them.

Discussion: Why have people started looking down upon blue-collar working (eg plumber)?   Because of the idea that education pushes society forward, and that plumbers aren’t going to push society forward as well. Also the idea that we don’t really realize that we need plumbers until our plumbing breaks. Are there really any jobs that can’t be replaced by automation and technology? Henry Ford dumbed down the trade of manufacturing. He increased inefficiency by increasing specialization. They have been moving back to increasing trade-based positions in companies like Barclays. In America we value intellectual stimulus in 4 year college, as opposed to a 2 year trade school. Another element of the book is to see the physical fruits of your work. The carpenter gets immediate feedback on whether his building is level. Problem solving versus problem finding: Psets are problem solving, whereas fixing a washing machine is diagnostically finding a problem. He says this is more high-level thinking.

Looking at 3-d modeling.

Computerized design, computerized engineering manufacturing. Safety factor of 2 means you’re in 2 degrees of failing. Thursday will bring in a 3d printer, to print out 3 axis mill.

Week 7: Tuesday

First day back from Spring Break!

  • Discussion Part 3 (Rayyan)
    • They climb mountain; Chris has resentment towards his father
    • Gets spooked because he hears rockslides, feels like something bad will happen so they decide to climb other peak next time
    • Quality is the dao. Phaedrus started reading the dao, and it is exactly what he was trying to explain in quality.
    • Poncaire: chaos theory, getting away from absolutes
    • End of absolutes (beginning of 20th century), no more absolutes (time, space, substance, magnitude, etc.) is relativity (time dilation, length contraction, antimatter, quantum mechanics)
    • Go back to Bozeman for a night for rest
    • Different font so Phaedrus is re-taking over the mind and this worries the narrator
    • Heads for California
    • Quality is something inherent in every single philosophy and this was not considered before, like the Buddha
    • 3 diff ways of getting stuck: gumption traps (like grit that helps you persevere thru challenges, can rise and fall) (parts failure, intermittent failure), setbacks (ego traps, value trap, etc), hang-ups
    • Monkey trap: monkey puts hand thru hole to grab rice but then gets stuck
    • Dream with the glass door: he has a dream where he’s behind the glass door and wife and Chris are on the other side, Chris trying to ask him to open door but he wont
    • Miu: everything can be answered by yes/no question (Japanese concept)
    • Miu if you cant answer w yes or no, then you answer miu because you need to ask a better question
    • Most important part is the traps!! Learn to just stick with it
    • If things not going well, chill
    • Most mistakes happen when you’re working on something too long
  • Discussion Part 4 (Leslie)
    • Opens w the dream again but more specific and figure in shadows doesn’t let him open the door, wakes up and sees he’s strangling Chris, dreamer is Phaedrus
    • Phaedrus gaining more control
    • Wants to hospitalize himself
    • More flashbacks about endpart of phaedrus’ journey before insanity
    • Phaedrus interested in Greek philosophers, had a fight w the director of the program at UChicago
    • Logically concluded that he was approaching insanity
    • Dualism: Phaedrus used rhetoric, Director used logic
    • Reference about art and quality
    • Quality is goal of art
    • Realizes Chris misses Phaedrus
    • Chris Thinks narrator is different
    • Narrator sees mentally problematic habits in Chris
    • Phaedrus takes over in last conversation w Chris
      • Nice resolution
      • Chris asks, “are you insane?”
      • Rid binaries and united these 2 things
      • Told Chris he’s similar to Phaedrus
      • Weary at first but Phaedrus does things not really sane but realizes that Phaedrus isnt really insane
      • Chris trying to impress father, push world away
      • Better that Chris found a sol’n before finding out the way Phaedrus found out
  • General comments and reviews about the book:
    • Owen: not what i expected it to be, thought it would be about getting down to basics and slowness, but actually was about a guy who was insane
    • Jack: story was very good, bogged down a bit because philosophy is heavy
    • Sarah: interesting take from motorcycle perspective
    • Prof: very good
  • Shop Class as Soulcraft
    • Value of labor
    • A bit preachy
    • What one gets out of working on a motorcycle
    • When one is being diagnostic, you ask, “what does it need”
    • Asking questions is a higher level of intellectual activity than just providing answers
  • Talking about the Clutch of our motorcycle
    • Bolt and nut loose which is why didn’t work before
    • If you release, everything slips so you don’t hurt yourself nor motorcycle
    • When slips, bottom chain tight and top chain loose
    • 100 pounds in bottom chain
    • 10 pounds, 1 foot
    • coeff of friction rubber, asphalt = 1
    • coeff of friction steel, steel = 0.2
    • 200 foot-pounds to move a bike, exerting more wont really help you
    • 20:1 gear ratio, so you only need 10 foot-pounds on smaller sprocket
    • To slip at higher torque, either stiffer spring or more friction plates
    • If you stiffen springs, handle stiffer so harder to operate too
    • Slips at lower torque: easier to use clutch release, easier to kickstart, but you don’t want it to release when you need power, but you wanna make sure it does release at a certain torque
    • This shows braking of the engine
    • Clutch helps you disconnect gear from motor so you can shift gears

Week 3: Thursday

Last Lab Recap

Detailing: Went down into shop and looked at hubs with the wheel group, then went back to sanding the oil and gas tanks. They also experimented with the grit of the sandpaper (600, 800, + 1000 grit).

Electrical: Learned how to sauter: how to cut the wires, take out the insulation, and solder them together. Also looked at the wiring harness.

Top and Bottom End: Wanted to check the oil pump system, but to do that they had to remove the gears. They also learned why the clutch plates are designed the way they are and that there is a duplex chain on our motorcycle.

Frame: Started by disassembling the fork, then they degreased the parts. Today, they’re going to put them through the part cleaner in the shop.

Wheels: Sanded the hubs


Finding Top Speed of the Motorcycle

Problem: There is a chain connecting the crankshaft to the clutchbasket. There are two sprockets connected to the clutchbasket; in the highest gear these two sprockets spring together. That will turn the rear wheel. We want to figure out how fast the rear wheel is spinning when the crank is 6000rpm (top engine rpm). The second thing we want to figure out is how fast would the motorcycle be going at that pace.

Answer: The motorcycle is going 60mph.

A sprocket engaging with the chain (meshes with the chain); a gear has teeth, which look very similar to the procket, and they mesh with another gear, so there’s a point of contact and when you turn one, you end up turning another (involute shape, roll on one another).

Reading Discussion

  • Discussion Leader: Charles
  • Chapter 11: Wake up and have a nice morning in the hotel, decide to take a different route which goes by Yellowstone Park, talks about Phaedrus and lateral truth, then goes into Phaedrus’s history in the army in Korea.
    • P.124, engine backfires because there wasn’t enough oxygen. Backfiring through the intake can be harmful; the flame will burn all the fuel in the intake all the way up to the carburetor, creating a volume of air with no air and no fuel. This means the engine runs lean and if this keeps happening, the engine can stall out. Higher than normal engine temperatures, the engine being deaccelerated too quickly, too much alcohol in the fuel, etc. can all cause backfire.
    • A priori motorcycle: Narrator explains that Hume’s approach got Kant thinking. Kant introduces the idea of reason. A priori is knowledge that’s theoretical; for example, when driving a motorcycle you know that gas is being used. Even though you can’t see or sense it, you know it’s happening and can reason that gas is being used.
  • Chapter 12: Wake up in the hotel again and start talking about the DeWeeses, who they’re going to stay with the next day. The narrator starts talking about how Phaedrus knew them in college.
    • A lot of electrical problems are mechanical: if something’s not working, shake it.
  • Chapter 13: They’re going to Boseman. The narrator talks about how he tried to discredit the university he worked with and his students disagreed with him. He describes what the mission of the university is: to seek truth.

Week 3: Tuesday

Last Class Lab Recap

Bottom and Top End: They continued to take apart the engine. They took off another cover and started looking in to see what was happening on timing side; some weird pieces were found and they dug into the manuals to figure out how to get a couple pieces out. They also removed the cam. There was a problem with a piece near the transmission; there was a nut and when it turned with a wrench, the whole engine turned. A pin was needed to lock the flywheel so they could turn the nut. Also, the engine was identified as dry sump, meaning that the motorcycle was not circulating oil. Compared rotation of crank to rotation of rear sprocket (last class). Close ratio transmission

Transmission: A set of gears that is between the crankshaft and the wheels. It allows you to improve the mechanical advantage going from the engine to the wheel. For example, bikes have a low and high gear; low gear lets you get up a hill and high gear lets you go fast. The transmission does the same thing for a motorcycle.

Electrical and Wheels: Read power generator section of the manual, then went outside, filled the generator with oil and fuel and got it running. The manual says don’t operate without grounding it, but they did it anyway. The manual says that as a disclaimer, since grounding makes certain that you never get a shock.

Frame: Told to either powdercoat or bondo the hubs. Al said that the indents were less than 1/16th of an inch so they just used putty. Glen was skeptical about this solution.

Detailing: Sanded down the headlight, oil and gas tanks to clean off the paint and take off orange peel. They wet-sanded so that grit wouldn’t fill up the sandpaper. However, a thicker grit would make sure the paint sticks; on a smooth surface, the paint won’t stick as well. The wet sanding will leave a smooth finish, so they’ll need primer to make sure that the paint sticks.

Reading Discussion

  • Discussion Leader: Maya
  • Chapter 8 Summary: They’re in Montana. They get in really exhausted and the innkeeper doesn’t understand them because they’re acting loopy. He spends a lot of time fixing the motorcycle and describes the difference between classical and romantic. They like the town and there’s a part where he goes to buy the jets.
    • P. 96 tappet adjustment: He was tuning the motorcycle because he heard a noise that sounded like a loose tappet. Since they were at a higher altitude, the elevation made the engine richer. He finds that the porcelain inside the plugs is dark which means the engine is running rich; then he went to go check the cylinders to see which one it was.
    • He was afraid that the connecting rod would tear itself free and destroy the engine.
    • Also mentioned that jets needed to be changed in the carburetor. At high altitude, there is less oxygen, and putting in too much fuel causes the engine to run rich. He put in a smaller jet to have the correct balance of air and fuel.
  • Chapter 9 Summary: Primarily focuses on the scientific method, but near the end they narrowly avoid getting into an accident.
    • P. 104, misfiring of the engine is caused by bumps in the road: Bumps can cause misfires in multiple ways; for example, creating bad electrical contact, causing the throttle can open briefly, etc.
    • P. 107 Induction vs. Deduction. He talks about testing the battery to figure out what’s happening in the electrical system.
    • He talks about the scientific method and how to create a hypotheses.
      • “Asks the right questions, choose the right tests, and draw the right conclusions”
  • Chapter 10 Summary: This chapter was about Phaedrus and how he was successful in school because he wanted to understand science. However, he moved on to philosophy to understand the questions science couldn’t answer and ends up being expelled from school.
    • P.113, Discusses how science is always advancing

Electricity Demo

  • Voltage can be produced with a moving magnet. You would find that the signal goes positive to negative and back to positve. When the field is increasing, it is positive and when it is decreasing, it is negative. Diodes on this model lets current go in only one direction.
  • There are three sets of coils. To run the motorcycle ignition system, you only need one set. Another set is needed for the lights and another for the horn.
  • Self-Induction
  • Energy can be stored in an inductor
  • There is simulation software for the Electrical team that can help with planning for the motorcycle

Readings for Thursday: Chapters 11-13

Week 2: Thursday

Last Class Lab Recap

  • Top and Bottom End: continued to dismantle the engine by removing the engine covers
    • John explained how the gear shifts work, and we thus figured out the gear rations through calculating the number of turns on the crankshaft that completed one turn on the rotor for each gear
      • after conversions, our motorcycle is extra close, which means it is designed for racing
        • 1st gear is a low gear made for moving, and 2nd gear onwards allows for high speeds
    • pulled head off and saw the movement of the piston
    • the oil chamber on the clutch side was full of grit making the oil look black, representing a new problem in the cycle
  • Electrical/Wheels- checked for rims that would fit the ’60 cub, discovering that we need the 19in and 18in wheels
    • also checked to see which spokes that we had to see if it matched with the hub
    • hubs have two flanges: since the hubs are not symmetrical, so the spokes come out of different angles
      • had to figure out the handedness of the rim, and whether they were the right rims
  • Detailing- took off headlights, gas, and oil tanks to ultimately take down to shop and paint today
  • Frame- sandblasted the hubs, but sandblasting left the hubs rough, so now need to figure out how to make the hubs smooth
    • options: bondo or send it out for powder coating

Reading Discussion

  • Discussion leader: Marina
  • Chapter 5 Summary: they stopped for breakfast, talked about John’s handbrake issues, go camping and discover that Chris has mental health problems
    • p. 52- checks engine temperature, and it has a normal valve clatter
    • p. 53- John’s handlebars start flipping because it is too loose, so they were going to use a shim (a flat strip of metal)
      • collars were pinched shut, yet it was still not tight enough
      • beer cans work as good shims because they are a generally stable soft material
  • Chapter 6 summary: on the road trip, it is extremely hot, and narrator introduces Phaedrus and the classical vs romantic philosophy debate
    • p. 68- thread stripped in chain adjustment, but can adjust chain by sliding
      • to tighten or loosen chain, loosen the axle nut to use the chain adjuster to adjust the wheel back and forth: this stretches the chain
      • if threading is messed up and there is no adjuster, can whack with a hammer on both sides of the rod
    • p. 73- explanation about the different parts of a motorcycle
      • rectifier- fixes the way the current goes–> converts AC (alternating current) to DC (direct current)
      • flywheel- wheel connected to the connecting rod–> stores rotational energy
      • distributor (aka points system in a single cylinder vehicle)- rotating sets of contacts that distributes the sparks from one cylinder to another
        • relative timing of the spark affects engine performance
          • retarded- late
          • advanced- afterwards
  • Chapter 7 Summary- learn more about Phaedrus: the group enters a town, and the narrator recants his hospitalization and electric shock therapy, and Phaedrus represents the previous life of the narrator (ghost)
    • Idea of differences between Romantics and Classicists
      • Romantics- trying to understand the whole system- artistic view
      • Classicists- focus on science and understanding more about the individual parts

Reading for Next Week: Tuesday: Chapters 8-10, Thursday: 11-13

Week 2: Tuesday

Question about last lab –

Blue Motorcycle: What needed to be detached from the motor to remove it from the frame?

  • Oil lines on the bottom (feed and return) and on the head (two circles)
  • gas line and carburetor (along with the slide)
  • electrical wiring/points system
  • clutch cable
  • valve covers
  • one of the studs (removed with trick turn: tightening of two different nuts, then unscrewed together)
  • engine bolts
  • spark plug wire

Sandblasting- sandblast gun shoots air over a tube which creates a vacuum, and sand thus gets drawn up the tube and then ejected outwards

  • team covered threads where axles go through with tape (on wheel hubs)
  • sandblasting cleans up rust and takes off paint

Model T Engine model

  • When lightbulbs go off, the valve closes
  • after an explosion, fuel and air come together, which generates heat (raising the pressure by a factor of 7), and the powerstroke happens right after the spark, so the piston gets pushed down, causing the crank to turn
    • What is left in the chamber? C6H18 + O2 –> CO2 + H2O
  • orange valves let hot gas out through exhaust pipe, and white valves let cool gas in from the carburetor
  • in a Model T, there are 4 cylinders, so there is always one running, which keeps the car going

Reading Discussion

  • Discussion Leader: Owen
  • Chapter 3- Thunderstorm, introduction of ghosts/Phaedrus
    • Speedometer measures how fast one is going based on speed of wheel rotations
    • Tachometer refers to rotations per meter of the engine- measures the crankshafts
  • Chapter 4- What to bring on a motorcycle roadtrip, transition back to roadtrip during the super cold temperatures
    • Cotter pins: piece of metal to help put something in place
    • cold chisel- metal used to remove things that are stuck
    • feeler guage- thin piece of metal to see how close two things are

Week 1: Thursday Scribe Notes

General Notes-

  • Groups decided, posted on website
  • Discussion leader – Jack

Reading Discussion-

  • Choke cuts off the air supply from the carburetor, so it runs rich drawing raw gasoline as opposed to gas vapor. Good for when it’s cold but can flood gas tank if it’s too warm (solution to flooded gas tank is pull plus out and air-dry tank).
  • Gas tank feeds float chamber and the pressure difference between the chamber and the carburetor draws the gasoline into the carburetor. When the level of gas falls in the float chamber, the float lowers allowing more gasoline to enter.
  • Four stroke engine (the flywheel stores rotational energy form the explosion of force).
  • Engine knocks are from autoignition.
  • The stop cock connects the tank and the float chamber.
  • Missing is when the pops are missed (comes from the carburetor being starved of fuel).
  • When the piston and the valve heat rapidly the piston expands more than the valve causing the engine to seize.
  • Tappets connect the cam and the pushrod.
  • Point type ignition system: every time the points open it creates a spark of high heat, while the spark in the spark plug is high voltage.
  • Running in: when you put in a new piston and need to wear the piston in.
  • John and Sylvia fear of technology vs. narrator’s belief in engagement in things you own/fix
  • What is best?

Week 1: Tuesday Scribe Notes

General Notes-

  • Groups:

Top End – head, intake/exhaust valves, cylinders, carburetor, exhaust

Bottom End – clutch, transmission, oil

Electrical – wiring, points, coils, timing

Wheels – brakes, rims, spokes, hubs

Frame – fork, swing arm, seat mudguards, tanks

Detailing – Painting, Fasteners

  • Probably will be using Fusion 360 program

Reading Discussion-

  • Compression ratio (7:1 9:1) ratio of volume of cylinder and combustion chamber from when the piston is at the bottom to when it is at the top. Relates to engine power.
  • Square engine (like ours with dimensions 63mmx64mm).
  • Engines are 33% efficient with a third of energy lost in the exhaust and a third lost through excess heat.
  • Dry sump sucks oil out so the fly wheel doesn’t rotate in oil.
  • OHV (over head valves)
  • Clutch (ours is a friction clutch that uses a collection of plates).
  • Our bike has no battery – alternator directly creates the spark).