Indoor Smoke: Breaking Down Respiratory Defences, c. 2000


Indoor Smoke: Cooking with Solid Fuel


Color-coded map shows percentage of households using solid fuel for cooking in 2002. The map reflects health-related concerns with the use of dung, wood, crop waste or coal to cook. Young (under five years) children’s exposure to the smoke may cause respiratory-related diseases, and eventually lead to their death.

Legend indicates:

  • Red: Over 75%
  • Dark Orange: 51%-75%
  • Light Orange: 26%-50%
  • Yellow: 25% and under
  • Grey: no data

A more detailed version of this map:


Inheriting the World: The Atlas of Children’s Health and the Environment, Part Two: Global Environmental Issues. By Bruce Gordon, Richard Mackay and Eva Rehfuess, World Health Organization, 2004.
ISBN 92 4 159156 0.


© WHO 2004. All rights reserved.


This map is one in a series: