The Western Mediterranean in the 3rd-9th C.


The Western Mediterranean in the 3rd-9th C.


This map illustrates the general conditions of the establishment of Muslim rule in Portugal and Spain. Existing medieval roads inherited from the Roman administration were used by the Umayyads to pursue their conquests. To penetrate Spain, they followed the main roads of Sevilla and Cordova in the South, and Merida and Toledo on the border.

Legend indicates:

  • Limit of Muslim Rule
  • Coasts temporarily under Muslim control
  • Muslim outposts
  • Raids by Muslims
  • Raids by Christians
  • Raids by Vikings
  • Heretical tribes and dynasties
  • Masmuda tribes
  • Sanhaja tribes
  • Zanata tribes


An Historical Atlas of Islam – Atlas Historique de l’Islam, Second Edition. Edited by Hugh Kennedy, Tuta sub Aegide Pallas 1683,
Brill, Leiden-Boston-Koeln, 2002, page 53.

Cartography by Marc Bel, Peter van der Donck.


© 2002 Koninklijke Brill NV, The Netherlands. All rights reserved.


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