The Islamic Middle East
Color-coded map shows empire boundaries and sites of major battles/conquests.
This is a copyrighted work. Its use on QED is under the “Fair Use” rule..
The Cambridge Illustrated History of the Islamic World (p. 21)
I M Lapidus, A History of Islamic Societies, Cambridge
© 1988 I M Lapidus, A History of Islamic Societies, Cambridge (p 40)