Primary Sources

Crawford, Jackson, trans., The Saga of the Volsungs with the Saga of Ragnar Lothbrok (Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing, 2017).

Ibn Faḍlān, Aḥmad. “Mission to the Volga,” edited by James E. Montgomery. In Two Arabic Travel Books: Accounts of India and China, edited by Philip F. Kennedy and Shawkat M. Toorawa, 163–297. Library of Arabic Literature. New York: New York University Press, 2014.

Somerville, Angus A., and R. Andrew McDonald, trans. “Viking Activities in England, 851–900.” In The Viking Age: A Reader, 2nd ed., edited by Angus A. Somerville and R. Andrew McDonald, 230–37. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2014.

Terry, Patricia, trans. “Völuspá.” In Poems of the Elder Edda, 2nd ed., 1–10. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1990.

Secondary Sources

Ashby, Steven P. “What Really Caused the Viking Age? The Social Context of Raiding and Exploration.” Archaeological Dialogues 22, no. 1 (2015): 89–106.

Brink, Stefan, and Neil Price, eds. The Viking World. London: Routledge, 2008

Gardeła, Leszek. “Shield-Maidens and Norse Amazons: Reconsidered Women and Weapons in Viking Age Burials in Norway.” Viking, 2021,

Graham-Campbell, James. Viking Art. 3rd ed. World of Art. London: Thames and Hudson, 2021.

Hedeager, Lotte. “Split Bodies in the Late Iron Age/Viking Age of Scandinavia.” In Body Parts and Bodies Whole: Changing Relations and Meanings, edited by Katharina Rebay- Salisbury, Marie Louise Stig Sørensen, and Jessica Hughes, 111–18. Oxford: Oxbow Books, 2010.

Moen, Marianne, and Matthew J. Walsh. “Agents of Death: Reassessing Social Agency and Gendered Narratives of Human Sacrifice in the Viking Age.” Cambridge Archaeological Journal, vol. 31, no. 4, 2021, pp. 597–611., doi:10.1017/S0959774321000111.

Nordeide, Sæbjørg Walaker, and Kevin J. Edwards. The Vikings. Leeds: Arc Humanities Press, 2019.

Price, Neil. “Passing into Poetry: Viking-Age Mortuary Drama and the Origins of Norse Mythology.” Medieval Archaeology 54, no. 1 (2010): 123–56.

Serra, Daniel, and Hanna Tunberg. An Early Meal: A Viking Age Cookbook and Culinary Odyssey. Furulund, Sweden: ChronoCopia Publishing, 2013.

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