Two Worlds: Rich and Poor, 2004


Two Worlds: Rich and Poor


These maps show the connection between income and the use of solid fuels for cooking.
The use of such fuels in the home is associated with child mortality.

The first map shows for each WHO sub-region the percentage of people living on more than two dollars a day
who use solid fuel for cooking.

The second map indicates the percentages of people living on less than one dollar a day who use solid fuel for cooking.


  • Red: over 75%
  • Dark Orange: 51%-75%
  • Light Orange: 26%-50%
  • Yellow: 25% and under
  • Gray: no data

A more detailed version of this map [1] makes these observations:

  • “Households on higher incomes mostly use electricity or gas for cooking.

Those on lower incomes are more likely to use polluting solid fuels, such as dung, wood and coal.
As a result, children living in these households suffer disproportionately from the adverse health
effects of indoor smoke.”

  • “Every year smoke from burning solid fuels in the home kills one million children under five years.”


Inheriting the World: The Atlas of Children’s Health and the Environment, Part One: Child health and poverty. By Bruce Gordon, Richard Mackay and Eva Rehfuess, World Health Organization, 2004.
ISBN 92 4 159156 0.


© WHO 2004. All rights reserved.


This map is one in a series: