The Manchu Empire and the European Powers, 1644-1912 A.D.


The Manchu Empire and the European Powers


This color-coded map shows the changes in the political landscape of Asia from approximately 1600 to 1900. It indicates the expansion and contraction of the Manchu empire from 1606 to 1912, the extension of the Russian empire from 1689 to 1912, and the British empire in South Asia during the same period. The years of foundation/acquisition, loss, and boundary-agreement are also marked on the map. In addition, railway lines and return migrations of the eastern Torgut are indicated.

Legend indicates:

  • Original country of the Manchus, 1606 A.D.
  • The Manchu Empire during its greatest expansion, 1760-1842 and 1858 A.D.
  • The later Manchu Empire until 1912 A.D.
  • The British Empire
  • The Russian Empire at the Accession of Peter the Great, 1689 A.D.
  • Russian conquests until 1858 A.D.
  • Russian conquests between 1858-1912 A.D.


History and Commercial Atlas of China, Albert Herrmann, Ph.D., Harvard University Press, 1935.

See Huhai Website.

Copyright status

Public license
This work is believed to be in the public domain because its copyright is believed to have expired.


This map is one in the series: