Cholera Diffusion in Zanzibar c. 1869


Track of the Epidemic from Taveta to Bura and from Zanzibar by Mombasa to Ribe

In Koch (2005), the caption is
“Christie’s map of cholera diffusion in Zanzibar. Source: Reproduced courtesy of College of Physicians of Philadelphia.”


In this map, which was published in 1876, the physician James Christie
charts the route of two distinct cholera epidemics.
The only date on the map is December 1869 at Mombasa.

The map provides detailed evidence against miasmatic views about the spread of cholera.
For context, see the description page for the companion map,
The Geographical Diffusion of Epidemic Cholera in Eastern Africa.


The image was scanned from Fig 7.10 in Tom Koch (2005). Cartographies of Disease. ESRI Press, Redlands, California.

The original map was published in Christie, J. (1876). “Cholera Epidemics in East Africa: An Account of the Several Diffusions of the Disease in that Country from 1821 till 1872, with an Outline of the Geography, Ethnography, and Trade Connections of the Region through which the Epidemics Passed”. London: MacMillan.

Copyright status

Public license

The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. This photograph of the work is also in the public domain in the United States (see Bridgeman Art Library v. Corel Corp.).