Adamson, Sylvia. “Understanding Shakespeare’s Grammar: Studies in Small Words.” In Reading Shakespeare’s Dramatic Language, edited by Sylvia Anderson et al. London: Bloomsbury, 2001.

Blake, N. F.  A Grammar of Shakespeare’s Language. New York: Palgrave. 2002.

Hope, Jonathan. Shakespeare’s Grammar. London: The Arden Shakespeare, 2003.

Linguistics and History of the Language

Hope, Jonathan. The Authorship of Shakespeare’s Plays: A Socio-Linguistic Study. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994.

Hope, Jonathan. “Shakespeare and Language.” The New Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare. Edited by Margreta De Grazia, Stanley Wells. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011.


McDonald, Russ. Shakespeare’s Verse. In Shakespeare: An Oxford Guide. Edited by Stanley Wells and Lena Orwin. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003.

Pangallo, Matteo. “Dramatic Metre.” The Oxford Handbook of Shakespeare. Edited by Arthur F. Kinney. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.

Wright, George T. 1988. Shakespeare’s Metrical Art. Berkeley: University of California Press.


De Grazia, Margreta.“Shakespeare and the Craft of Language.” In The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare, 49-66. Edited by Margreta de Grazia and Stanley Wells. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006.

Joseph, Sister Miriam. Shakespeare’s Use of the Arts of Language. New York: Columbia UP, 1947.

McDonald, Russ. Shakespeare and the Arts of Language. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001.


Blake, N. F. The Language of Shakespeare. New York: Macmillan, 1983.

Booth, Stephen. “Shakespeare’s Language and the Language of His Time.” In Shakespeare and Language. Edited by Catherine M. S. Alexander. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.

Houston, John Porter. Shakespearian Sentences: A Study in Style and Syntax. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1988.

Hussey, S. S. The Literary Language of Shakespeare. London and New York: Longman, 1982.

McDonald, Russ. Shakespeare’s Late Style. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006.

Munroe, Lucy. Archaic Style in English Literature, 1590–1674. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014.


Hope, Jonathan, and Michael Witmore.“The Very Large Textual Object: A Prosthetic Reading of Shakespeare.” Early Modern Literary Studies 9.3 (2004): 6.1-36. <URL:>

Shore, Daniel. 2015. “Shakespeare’s Constructicon.” Shakespeare Quarterly 66/2 (2015): 113-136.

Witmore, Michael and Jonathan Hope. “Shakespeare by the Numbers: On the Linguistic Texture of the Late Plays.” Early Modern Tragicomedy, 133-153. Edited by Subha Mukherji and Raphael Lynne. Cambridge: D.S. Brewer, 2007.


Crystal, David. Shakespeare’s Words: A Glossary and Companion. London: Penguin, 2002.

David Crystal. Think on My Words: Exploring Shakespeare’s Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008.

Innes, Paul. Class and Society in Shakespeare: A Dictionary. London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2008.

Other Criticism

Jakobson, Roman. “Shakespeare’s Verbal Art in ‘Th’Expense of Spirit.’” Language in Literature. Edited by Krystyna Pomorska and Stephen Rudy. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1990.

Kermode, Frank. Shakespeare’s Language. London: Penguin, 2000.

Magnusson, Lynne. Shakespeare and Social Dialogue: Dramatic Language and Elizabeth Letters. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999.

Mahood, M. M. Shakespeare’s Wordplay. London and New York: Methuen, 1957.

McMullan, Gordon. Shakespeare and the Idea of Late Writing: Authorship in the Proximity of Death. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

Palfrey, Simon. 2001. Late Shakespeare: A New World of Words. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Wright, George T. “Hendiadys and Hamlet.” PMLA 96.2 (1981): 168–93.